prp function - RDocumentation (2023)


draw onepartmodel.

Novice users should userpart.plotinstead, it provides a simplified interface to this function.

For an overview, see the marker on the packagePlotting rpart trees with the rpart.plot package.

The arguments of this function are a superset of those ofrpart.plotand some of the arguments have different default values. In detail, the different standards are:

| rpart.plot | prp |
type | 2 | 0 |
extra | "auto" | 0 |
fallen leaves | TRUE | FALSE |
bulls | 0 | -8 |
face | 0 | 3 |
box.pallet | "auto" | 0 |

The defaults are different for historical reasons: For backward compatibility, the defaultsprphave not changed, while the default values ​​ofrpart.plotthey changed whentype="automatic"ybox.palletthey were introduced in version 2.0.0 of this package.


prp(x=stop("no 'x' arg"), type=0, extra=0, under=FALSE, fall.leaves=FALSE, nn=FALSE, ni=FALSE, yesno=TRUE, branch=if(fallen .hojas) 1 mais .2, uniform=TRUE, left=TRUE, xflip=FALSE, yflip=FALSE, digits=2, varlen=-8, faclen=3, roundint=TRUE, cex=NULL, tweak=1, clip .facs=FALSO, clip.right.labs=TRUE, compress=TRUE, ycompress=uniforme, Margin=0, space=1, gap=NULL, snip=FALSE,, trace=FALSE,

box.col=0, box.palette=0, pal.thresh=NULL,, border.col=col, round=NULL, leaf.round=NULL, shadow.col=0, prefix= "", sufijo="", xsep=NULO,

low.percentage=2, low.font=fonte, low.col=1, low.cex=.8,

split.cex=1, split.font=2,, split.col=1,, split.border.col=0, split.lty=1, split.lwd= NULL, split.round=0, split.shadow.col=0, split.prefix="", right.split.prefix=NULL, split.suffix="", right.split.suffix=NULL, facsep=", ", eq=" = ", lt=" < ", ge=" >= ",

branch.col=if( 1 else "gray", branch.lty=1, branch.lwd=NULL, branch.type=0, branch.tweak=1, min.branch.width =.002, sucursal.rellenar=sucursal.col,

nn.cex=NULL, nn.font=3,"", nn.col=1,, nn.border.col=nn.col, nn.lty=1, nn .lwd=NULL, nn.round=.3, sim.text="si", no.text="não",,, FUN="texto",

nspace=branch, minbranch=.3, do.par=TRUE, add.labs=TRUE, clip.left.labs=(type == 5), fam.main="", yshift=0, yspace=space, shadow .offset=.4, split.adj=NULL, split.yshift=0,, split.yspace=yspace, split.shadow.offset=shadow.offset, nn.adj=.5, nn.yshift =0,, nn.yspace=.5, ygap=gap/2, under.ygap=.5, yesno.yshift=0, xcompact=TRUE, ycompact=uniforme, xcompact.ratio=.8 , min.inter.height=4,,, ycompress.cex=.7, accept.cex=1.1, shift.amounts=c(1.5, 2), Fallen.yspace=.1,, legend.x=NULL, legend.y=NULL, legend.cex=1, ...)



Epartobject. The only argument needed.


Plot type. Possible values:

0By default. Draw a slice label on each slice and a node label on each leaf.

1Label all nodes, not just the leaves. Similar totext.rpartofall = TRUE.

2As1but draw the division labels below the node labels. Similar to plots in the CART book.

3Draw separate division labels for the left and right directions.

4As3but label all nodes, not just the leaves. Similar totext.rpartoffancy = TRUE. See tooclip.right.labs.

5Returns the name of the variable split into the inner nodes.


Show additional information about us. Possible values:

"auto"(case insensitive) Automatically select a value based on the model type as follows:additional=106class template with a binary responseadditional=104class template with a response that has more than two levelsadditional=100other models

0By default. No additional information.

1Show the number of observations that fall into the node (by class forclassroomobjects; preceded by the number of events forpoisonyExpmodels). similar totext.rpartofuse.n=TRUE.

2Class Models: Displays the classification rate in the node, expressed as the number of correct classifications and the number of observations in the node. Poisson and exp models: shows the number of events.

3Class models: misclassification rate at the node, expressed as the number of misclassifications and the number of observations at the node.

4Class models: probability by class of observations at node (conditional at node, sum at node is 1).

5Class templates: how4but it doesn't show the adjusted class.

6Class models: second class probability only. Useful for binary responses.

7Class templates: how6but it doesn't show the adjusted class.

8Class models: the probability of the adjusted class.

9Class models: the probability relative toallobservations: the sum of these probabilities across all worksheets is 1. This contrasts with the previous options, which give the probability relative to observations fallingno no-- the sum of probabilities at the node is 1.

10Class templates: I like9but it only shows the probability of the second class. Useful for binary responses.

11Class templates: I like10but it doesn't show the adjusted class.

+100To add100to any of the above to also display the percentage of observations in the node. For exampleadditional=101displays the number and percentage of observations in the node. It is actually a percentage weighted using thepesosstep topart.

Note: On the contrarytext.rpart, by defaultprpit uses its own routine to generate node labels (not the function attached to the object). see thenode.funargument.


Applies only ifadditional > 0. by defaultFALSE, which means to put the extra textemBox. WearTRUEput the textlowBox. See toobajo.cex.

fallen leaves

by defaultFALSE. ETRUE, place the leaf nodes at the bottom of the graph.


Show node numbers. by defaultFALSE. (In the current implementation, some overplot may occur withnn=TRUE.)


Returns the node indices, that is, the row numbers of the nodes in the object.Marco. by defaultFALSE.


One of0Do not writeSimyNoon the tree1(default) writeSimyNoin the first division2to writeSimyNoin all divisions. It seems to work better withfall.leaves=TRUE, split.border.col=1. (Hebutthe argument is ignored iftype=3o4. To usenn.coland the othernnparameters to change the color, etc. from theSimyNotext. To useyes.textyno textto change the actual text displayed).


Controls the shape of branches. Specify a value between0(V-shaped branches) and1(branches with square shoulders). The default isif(fallen.hoaves) 1 else .2.


ETRUE(default), the vertical spacing of the nodes is uniform. YesFALSE, the nodes are spaced proportionally to the fit (more precisely, to the difference between the deviation of a node and the sum of the deviations of its two children). Very small vertical spaces are automatically artificially expanded to make room for labels, seemining industry. To use:uniform=FALSEswindlercex=NULL(the default) can sometimes cause text to be too small.


by defaultTRUE, which means that the left side of a split is the path taken if the split condition is true. Withleft=FALSEthe division labels are changed so that the right side is true.

turn x

by defaultFALSE. ETRUE, flips the tree horizontally.

to turn

by defaultFALSE. ETRUE, turn the tree vertically so that the root is at the bottom.


The number of significant digits in the displayed numbers. by default2. E0, to usegetOption("digits"). If negative, use default.Formatfunction (with the absolute value ofdigits). Whendigitsis positive, the following details apply:0,001a9999are printed without exponent (and the number of digits is just a suggestion, seeFormatfor details). Numbers outside this range are printed with an "engineering" exponent (a multiple of 3).


Length of variable names in sliced ​​text (and, for class responses, the class in the node label). by default-8, which means truncate to eight characters. Possible values:

0use full names.

greater than 0to callabbreviatewith the dicebulls.

less than 0truncate variable names to the shortest length where they are still unique, but never truncate them to shorter thanabdomen.


Length of factor level names in splits. by default3, meaningabbreviateto three characters. Possible values ​​are likebullsabove, except that for backwards compatibility withtext.rpartthe special value1means to represent the factor levels with alphabetic characters (afor the first level,bfor the second, etc.).


Eroundint=TRUE(default) and all values ​​of a predictor in the training data are integers, divisions for that predictor are rounded to integers. For example, showbrothers < 3rather thansiblings < 2.5. Eroundint=TRUEand the data used to build the model is no longer available, a warning will be issued. Dressinground=FALSEis recommended if non-integer values ​​are actually possible for a predictor, even if all values ​​in the training data for that predictor are integers.


by defaultNULL, which means calculate the text size automatically. Because font sizes are discrete, thebossyou ask may not be exactly thebossyou can.


Adjust o (possibly calculated automatically)boss. Usingretouchit's usually easier than specifyingboss. the default valueretouches1, which means that there is no fit. use sayadjust = 1,2to make the text 20% larger. Because font sizes are discrete, a small change in the setting might not change the font size or change it more than you want.

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by defaultFALSE.ETRUE, print divisions on factors likefemalerather thangender = female; variable name and equal values ​​are removed.

Another example: printingsurvivedodiedinstead ofsurvived = survivedosurvived = died.


Applies only iftype=3o4. The default isTRUEwhat does it mean to "cut off" the right split labels i.e. do not printvariables=. See tooclip.left.labs.


ETRUE(default), free up more space by moving the nodes horizontally where space is available. This usually allows for larger text. (This is the same asparcel.rpartthe argument of the same name, except that here the default value isTRUE.)

and compress

ETRUE(the default, unlessuniform=FALSE), free up more space by moving labels vertically where space is available. This actually only fires if the initial is calculated automaticallybossIt is less than0,7. To useandcompress=FALSEif you think the resulting screen is too messy. In the current implementation, the scrolling algorithm works a little better (allowing for larger text) withtype=1,2, o3.


Extra white space around the tree, as a fraction of the graph's width. by default0, which means there is no additional space. To add, say, 10% space around the tree, useMargin = 0.1. (This is himmarginargument fromparcel.rpart. Name changed to avoid partial matches withMarch, which can be passed as an argument ....)


Horizontal space to the edge of the box on either side of the node label text, in character widths. by default1. Use this (andand space) for larger boxes. As this affects the size of the (possibly invisible) boxes, it also affects the chart layout and therefore also the automatic calculation ofboss.


Minimum horizontal space between (possibly invisible) boxes, in character widths. by defaultNULL, which means automatically choosing a suitable value (usually1, but if the graph is too full it will be set to0, allowing the boxes to touch each other to allow greaterboss). See toospace.


by defaultFALSE. To placeTRUEto clip the tree interactively with the mouse. see thepacking label(or just try).

Function called after each mouse click whentrim=TRUE. by defaultNULL, which means it has no function. otherwise setcutout.funfor your own function with the prototypefunction (tree), wheretreeit is the cut tree. see thepacking labelFor example.

The following controls the node labels.


by defaultFALSE. To useTRUEprint the calculation automaticallyboss,xlim, yousuperior. Use integer values ​​greater than 1 for more detailed tracing.


Color of the boxes around the text. by default0, which means to use the background color. If this argument is used, thebox.palletthe argument is ignored.


Palette for coloring the node boxes according to the adjusted value. This is a vector ofcores,For examplebox.palette=c("verde", "verde2", "verde4")Small fitted values ​​are displayed in color at the beginning of the vector; large values ​​with colors at the end. Quantiles are used to divide the fitted values.

the special valuebox.pallet=0(default toprp) uses the background color (usually white).

the special valuebox.pallet="carro"(default torpart.plot, case insensitive) automatically selects a predefined palette based on the model type.

Otherwise, specify apreset palettephysical"Grises"for the default gray palette (a range of grays). The predefined palettes are (seeshow.prp.palettesFunction):grises grises Vegetables Blues chestnuts oranges red purple Gy gn That's it thousand millions O two PU(alternate names for the palettes above)this avg GnRd buoretc (two-color divergent palettes: any combination of two of the above palettes)RdYlGn GnYlRd BlGnYl YlGnBl(three color palettes)

Prefix the palette name with"-"to reverse the order of the"-auto"obox.palette="-Grises".

Hebox.palletthe argument is ignored if thecaja.colthe palette argument is specified.


Applies whenbox.palletis a divergent palette of two colors (likethis avg). Specifies the response threshold for splitting the two subpalettes (such asThat's itygn).

For example, to display fitted values ​​less than 90 in blue tones and values ​​greater than 90 in green tones, usepal.thresh=90swindlercaja.paleta="BuGn".

by defaultamigo.threshis calculated automatically. (For a two-class response, the default limit is0,5; for a continuous response, the default is the adjusted median value).

Node boxes for fitted values ​​less than the threshold are displayed using colors from the first subpalette; node boxes for fitted values ​​greater than the threshold are displayed using colors from the second subpalette.

This argument is ignored ifbox.palletit is not a divergent palette of two colors and is ignored for models with multiclass responses (more than two classes).

Specifies how thebox.palletargument is handled when thenode.funthe argument is specified.

The default isFALSEWhat does ignore mean?node.funand use the adjusted value to select the color of the nodebox.palletlike always.

ETRUE, use the label returned by the node function (instead of the wrapped value) to select the color. The first number of each label returned by the node function is used, ignoring any leading non-numeric text in the label. An error message will appear. issued if a label does not include a number.

This argument is ignored ifnode.fununspecified and ignored for models with multiclass responses (more than two classes).


Border color of the box around the text. by defaultcolumn, the color of the text in the box. Wear0by no borders. (Observation:partweaks likecolumncan be passed as ... arguments. If that does not happen,by("col")if one.)


Controls the roundness of the corners of node boxes. by defaultNULL, which means calculate automatically. Otherwise, specify0for sharp edges and values ​​greater than0for rounded edges. Bigger is rounder. Values ​​that are too large for the box size are reduced silently.

round sheet

Controls the roundness of the corners of leaf node boxes. by defaultNULLwhat does use meanredondo. Otherwise, specify a value greater than or equal to0.


Shadow color under the boxes. by default0, without shadow. To try"gris"o"dark grey". (Note: Shadow overlays look better on supported devicesalfachannels If you get the message "Warning: semi-transparency is not supported", please let me know; means a fix is ​​needed in the code that determines whether the device supports alpha channels).


by default"". Append this string to the node labels. This could be the name of the bundled response, for example.


by default"". Add this string to the node labels. Text after a new double line"\n\n"(if any) will be plottedlowBox. (Actually, double newlines can be used in any of the prefix or postfix arguments for this purpose.)


A string that separates the individual counts and probabilities into the node labels whenadditional>0. default NULL means automatic selection: usually" "(two spaces) but" / "for fees. Wearxsep="/"for compatibility withtext.rpart. See toofacsep, which separates factor levels into split labels.


Check for blank spaces before the percentage (when 100 is used with theextraargument). One of0put a space before the percentage1put a new line before the percentage2(default) Automatically chooses a space or newline before the percentage.

The following controls the text below the boxes.(applies only iflow = TRUEor is there a new double line\n\nemprefixosuffix).

low font

Text font below the image. by defaultsource(which can be passed as an argument...).

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Text color below the box. by default1.


Size of the text below the box relative to the text in the box. by default.8, smaller than the text in the box.

The following controls split the labels.


Split text size relative toboss(which is automatically calculated by default). by default1.


Font for split labels. by default2, audacious. (Note: usesourceto change theItlabel text).

divided family

Font family for split labels. by default"", use something"serif". (Nota: usefamilyto change theItlabel text).


The color of the division label text. by default1. (Nota: usecolumnto change theItlabel text).

Color of split boxes. by default0, which means to use the background color.


Color of split box borders. by default0, invisible.


Linetype for split box borders. The default is1, but the border will be invisible unless you change the defaultsplit.border.col. (Nota: uselimitedto change theItbox edges.)


Line width of split box border in relation toboss(which is automatically calculated by default). The border is invisible by default, see codesplit.border.col.


Controls the roundness of the corners of split boxes. by default0, which means sharp corners. Otherwise, specify a value greater than or equal to0. Split boxes are invisible by default,


Shadow color under split boxes. by default0, without shadow.


by default"". Append this string to split tags.


by defaultsplit.prefix. Append this string to the correct division labels. Applies only whentype=3o4.


by default"". Add this string to the split tags.


by defaultsplit.suffix. Add this string to the correct split tags. Applies only whentype=3o4.


by default",". A string that separates factor levels into split labels. See tooxsep, which separates individual counts whenextraif one


by default" = ". A string that separates the factor name from the levels in the split labels. The idea is that you can add or remove spaces around the=, or use words if that suits you.


by default" < ". String representing ``less than'' in division labels.


by default" >= ". String representing ``greater than or equal'' in division labels.

The following control the branches.

branch. with the

Branch color. by default1, but set to"gris"ebranch.typeis different from zero.


branch type by default1.


Width of the line of branches in relation to theboss(which is automatically calculated by default). (Observation:rama.lwddoes not control the width of the ``wide branches'' drawn whenbranch.typeis different from zero.)


by default0. If non-zero, draw ``wide branches'', with branch widths proportional to the parameter selected bybranch.typeAs follows:

0The default value. The branches are drawn in the conventional way.1Detour2square (offset)3diversion / nobs4sqrt(deviation/nobs) (the standard deviation whenmethod="anova")5weight (structure $peso). This is the number of observations in the node, unlesspartofweightargument was used.6complexity7abs (predicted value)8predicted value - min(predicted value)9constant (to verify the visual perception of the relative width of the branches).

otherwise setbranch.typeto its own function. The function must take a single argument.x(hepartobject) and return a numeric vector of non-negative widths corresponding to the lines inMarco. verget.branch.widthsin the source code.

Note: with a non-zerobranch.type, in the current implementation, theramathe argument will be silently changed to1(eram > 0,5) o0(eram < 0,5)


by default1. Applies only ifbranch.typeis different from zero. Use this argument to scale branch widths, for example,branch.tweak=.5reduce the width of the branches by half. (By default,prpnormalizes the widths so that the widest branch is one-fifth the width of the patch).


by default0,002. Applies only ifbranch.typeis different from zero. The minimum width of a branch, as a fraction of the page width. The width of branches that would be thinner thanmin.branch.widthis stuck Enlargemin.branch.widthif the thinnest branches are too thin on your display device.

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Color used to fill in the wide branches. Applies only ifbranch.typeis different from zero. by defaultbranch. with the.

The following control node numbers (withnn=TRUE).


by defaultNULL, which means calculating thebossnode numbers automatically. This and the following arguments apply only whennn=TRUE.


Origin of node numbers. by default3, italic.


Font family for node numbers. by default"".


Node number text color. by default1.

Color of boxes around node numbers. by default0, which means to use the background color.


Box border color around node numbers. by defaultnn.col.


Node number box border linetype. by default1.


Width of the node box border line in relation toboss(which is automatically calculated by default). by defaultNULLwhat does use meanlwd(which can be passed as an argument...).

nn. redondo

Controls the rounding of the corners of node number boxes. by default.3, i.e. small corners. Otherwise, specify a value greater than or equal to0.

yes.text, no.text

Text displayed whenyes=TRUE. by defaultsim.text="si"yno.text="no".

Following are the user definable functions.

The function that generates the text in the node labels. The default isNULL, which means using a built-in pattern function toprp. (This is required for full support ofextraas described in the section onextraabove.) Otherwise, setnode.funfor your own function with the prototypefunction(x, labs, digits, varlen)see thepacking labelfor details. See also

The function that generates the text on the slices. The default isNULL, which means using a built-in pattern function toprp. otherwise setsplit.funfor your own function with the prototypefunction(x, labs, digits, varlen, faclen)


The function that displays text on the screen. by defaulttext.

The following are esoteric parameters, mainly for the graphical layout engine.

No space

Applies only whencompress=TRUE. by defaultnspace=rama. The size of the space between a slice and a sheet, relative to the space between the sheets.

mining industry

Applies only whenuniform=FALSE. by default.3. The minimum height between levels is fixed atmining industrytimes the average distance between levels. Necessary because sometimes a split gives little or no improvement in the deviation, and a distance between levels strictly proportional to the improvement would leave no room for the label.

do for

by defaultTRUE, which means adjusting theMarchparameter for the tree to fill the region of the figure. This also definesxpd=NA. These graphics parameters are restored to their original state beforeprpexits. If you explicitly defineMarchoxpd,prpwill use your configuration regardless of the configuration ofdo for.


by defaultTRUE, which means to display the labels. YesFALSE, provides a basic screen similar toparcel.rpart.


Asclip.right.labsbut for the labels on the left. The default isFALSE. keep in mind thatclip.left.labsyclip.right.labsthey can be vectors, indexed on the divided number.


Font family for main text. by default"". The (inconsistent) name was chosen to minimize partial matching withdirectoryfamilywhich can be passed as... arguments.

change and

Vertical position of labels, in character heights relative to their default position. by default0. Negative values ​​move the text down; positive upwards (the box around the text will follow it).

and space

Vertical space to the edge of the box above and below the node label text, at character height. by defaultspace. See comments forspace.


Box shadow offset, in character widths. by default.4(but the shadow will be invisible unless the default valueshadow.colChanged).


Horizontal position of split text. In units of string width, as is the convention foradj.default argumentsNULLwhat does use meanadj.(which by default is0,5but it can be passed as an argument...). Use values ​​less than/greater than.5to shift the text left/right (the box around the text will follow).


Vertical position of split labels, at character heights relative to their default positions. by default0. Negative values ​​move the text down; positive upwards (the box around the text will follow it). This adjusts the positions of the division labels relative to the node labels. (Wearchange andif you want to changeboththe division and node labels.)

Horizontal space between split label text and box, character width. by defaultspace. Affects the size of the box drawn around the text. Split boxes are invisible by default (, but nevertheless affect the layout of the graph used in the automatic calculation ofboss.


Vertical space between the split label text and the box, at character height. by defaultand space.

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Split box shadow offset, in character widths. by defaultshadow.offset. (but the shadow will be invisible unless the default valueshadow.colChanged).


Horizontal position of node label text. by default.5.


Vertical position of node numbers, in character heights, relative to their default positions. by default0.

nn. space

Horizontal space to the edge of the box on either side of the node number text, in character widths. by default.8.


Vertical space to the edge of the box above and below the node number text, at character height. by default.5.


Applies if text is drawn below the box (that is, iflow = TRUEor is there a new double line inprefixosuffix). Vertical space (character height) between the bottom edge of the box and the top of the text below the box.


Vertical position of "yes" and "no" character heights relative to their default position. by default0. Applies only whenyes=TRUE.


Minimum vertical space between boxes, at character height. by defaultlacuna/2.


ETRUE(default) and there is a lot of white space, automatically changexlimto compress the entire tree horizontally. This is usually only enabled for small trees. (Hexcompactoyycompactarguments compress the tree as a whole, while argumentscompressyand compressArguments move parts of the tree into available space.)


ETRUE(default) and there is a lot of vertical space, automatically changesuperiorto compress the entire tree vertically.


by default.8. Applies only whenxcompact=TRUE. The maximum possible without overlap is1, further compacting by.8usually gives better spacing (gives more space).


by default4. Applies only whenycompacto=TRUE. The minimum height (in character height units) between the lowest label on a layer and the highest label on the layer below.

Keep the maximum calculated automaticallybossat this default value1, which means never expandboss, hire only when necessary.

by default.15. Never scale below this when automatically calculatingboss, even if there are overlapping labels. (Graph layout algorithm is unstable withbossis below0,15-- which means that the size of the automatic type may be smaller than necessary).


by default.7. Applies only whenandcompress=TRUE. Apply theand compressalgorithm if initial is calculated automaticallybossit's smaller than that. The idea is that we don't want to change if we get an acceptable cex without changing. To doInformationalways try to change.


Accept the change only if it causes at least this big improvement inboss(because we don't want to change if it only gives a small improvement in cex). by default1.1that is, they require at least a 10% improvement. Wear0always take turns andInformationnever accept (or useandcompress=FALSE).


by defaultc(1.5, 2, 3). Forand compress, choose the bestbossproduced by changing the nodes by these values, in multiples of the box heights (after initial scaling).


Extra space for fallen leaves. by default.1, which means leaving 10% of the vertical space for fallen leaves. (The nameFallen.yspaceuses capital letters to avoid partial matches withfallen leaves.)

by defaultFALSE. Includegapyygapwhen drawing the boxes, for debugging purposes. (To draw the boxes, seecaja.col,frontera.col,, yousplit.border.col.) This argument only affects the way charts are drawn, not the chart layout algorithm in any way. with the idealbossat least some frames displayed this way will just touch each other (but none will overlap).

legend. x

Applies only to models with a multilevel class response (not binary or anova models, for which no legend is drawn). Legend horizontal position. Usually a value between0y1, although values ​​beyond these limits are often useful. The default isNULLwhich means automatically placing the subtitle (assuming there is enough space). WearTHATby no legend. Weartrace=TRUEto see the auto-calculated legend position.


Aslegend. xbut by the vertical position of the legend.


Aslegend. xbut by the relative size of the caption text. The default is1.

ExtraparArguments Only the ``important ones''parArguments are allowed. Note that arguments likecolumnapplies only toItlabels. To affect division labels or branch lines, usesplit.colybranch. with theinstead of.


A list of the following components. With the default arguments, most of them are calculated automatically.


Hepartobject. identical toxargument passed unlessclippingused.

us. cut

the cut knots,NULLunlessclippingused.

xlim, superior

The limits of the graph.

x, y

The coordinates of the node.

branch.x, branch.y

The coordinates of the branch.


Node labels.


the node labelboss.


The coordinates of the boxes around the nodes.


Split labels.


the split labelboss.


The coordinates of the boxes around the divisions.

See too

The label on the packagePlotting rpart trees with the rpart.plot package rpart.plotFunctions inpartpackage:parcel.rpart text.rpart part


run this code

# NOT RUN {data (ptitanic)tree <- rpart(survived ~ ., data = ptitanic, cp =.02) # cp = .02 because I want a small tree for the demoviejo.par <- par(mfrow =C(2,2)) # put 4 figures on a pageprp(tree, parent ="pattern prp\n(type = 0, extra = 0)")prp(tree, parent ="type = 4, extra = 6\nbox.palette = \"auto\"",type =4, additional =6,# label all nodes, show the second-class problembox.pallet ="auto",# color nodes automatically based on model typefaclen =0)# faclen = 0 to print the full names of the factorscols <- ifelse(tree$frame$yval ==1,"dark red","verde4") # green if you surviveprp(tree, parent ="various arguments",additional =106,# displays probability of survival and percentage of obs.n =TRUE,# display node numbersfallen.leaves =TRUE,# place the worksheets at the bottom of the pageshadow.col ="gris",# shadows under the leavesrama.lty =3,# draw branches using dotted linesrama =.5,# change the angle of the minor linesfaclen =0,# faclen = 0 to print the full names of the factorstrail =1,# print the automatically calculated cex, xlim, ylimdivide.cex =1.2,# make the split text larger than the node textdivide.prefix ="It is",# put "es" before split or textsplit.suffix ="?",# to place "?" after splitting the textcolumn = columns, border. column = columns,# green if you ="light gray",# light gray split boxes (default is white)split.border.col ="dark grey",# dark gray border on split boxesdivide.round =.5)# round the corners of the split box a bit# compare with the trace functions in the rpart packageplot(tree, uniform =TRUE, compress =TRUE, rama =.2)text(tree, use.n =TRUE, cex =.8, xpd =THAT)# cex is a guess, depends on window sizetitle("compare with the plotting functions\in the rpart package", cex.sub =.8)by( }

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(Video) R Package Development 2: Importing and Exporting Functions


What does prp do in r? ›

The prp function plots rpart trees. It automatically scales and adjusts the displayed tree for best fit. It combines and extends the plot. rpart and text.

What is the rpart method in R? ›

Rpart is a powerful machine learning library in R that is used for building classification and regression trees. This library implements recursive partitioning and is very easy to use.

What does rpart plot do in r? ›

The easiest way to plot a tree is to use rpart. plot. This function is a simplified front-end to the workhorse function prp, with only the most useful arguments of that function.

What is the default method in rpart? ›

The rpart function does cross-validation automatically by default. You then examine the model to see the result of the cross-validation, and prune the model based on that.

What is the purpose of PRP? ›

PRP treatment can help support wound healing in trauma and joint injury. The technique can address male pattern baldness, stimulate the growth of hair transplants and enhance other cosmetic procedures.

What is the mechanism of action of PRP? ›

Mechanism of action of PRP

It activates cell membrane receptors on target cell which in turn develop high energy phosphate bonds, which activates the signal proteins to initiate specific activity of target cells. These specific activities include mitogenesis, angiogenesis and macrophage activation (Fig. 1).

What algorithm does rpart use? ›

Like C50, rpart uses a computational metric to determine the best rule that splits the data, at that node, into purer classes. In the rpart algorithm the computational metric is the Gini coefficient.

Does rpart do cross-validation? ›

rpart() uses k-fold cross validation to validate the optimal cost complexity parameter cp and in tree(), it is not possible to specify the value of cp.

How do you make a decision tree with rpart? ›

Implementing Decision Trees in R — Regression Problem (using...
  1. Dataset: ...
  2. Step 1: Reading the Data; and Sampling Data. ...
  3. Step 2: Create the Tree. ...
  4. Queries: ...
  5. Step 3: Plot the Tree. ...
  6. Step 4: Test the model. ...
  7. Step 5: Evaluating the performance of Regression trees. ...
  8. Step 6: Calculate the Complexity Parameter.

What are the three plotting systems in R? ›

There are three different plotting systems in R and they each have different characteristics and modes of operation. They three systems are the base plotting system, the lattice system, and the ggplot2 system.

How does rpart calculate variable importance? ›

From the rpart vignette (page 12), “An overall measure of variable importance is the sum of the goodness of split measures for each split for which it was the primary variable, plus goodness (adjusted agreement) for all splits in which it was a surrogate.”

How do you visualize a decision tree in R? ›

Training and Visualizing a decision trees in R
  1. Step 1: Import the data.
  2. Step 2: Clean the dataset.
  3. Step 3: Create train/test set.
  4. Step 4: Build the model.
  5. Step 5: Make prediction.
  6. Step 6: Measure performance.
  7. Step 7: Tune the hyper-parameters.
Jan 21, 2023

What is the default method and why is it required? ›

Default methods enable you to add new functionality to existing interfaces and ensure binary compatibility with code written for older versions of those interfaces. In particular, default methods enable you to add methods that accept lambda expressions as parameters to existing interfaces.

How many functional interface methods are there by default? ›

Conceptually, a functional interface has exactly one abstract method.

Do default methods need to be implemented? ›

Default methods are methods that can have a body.

We would need to provide the implementation of that method in all the implementing classes. However, sometimes methods have only single implementation and there is no need to provide their implementation in each class.

How does PRP reduce inflammation? ›

PRP calms inflammation

The PRP serum contains 5-10 times more platelets than normal blood. Platelets are cell fragments that are filled with growth factors. Growth factors produce fibroblasts and endothelial cells, which your body uses to subdue inflammation and promote healing.

How effective is PRP for healing? ›

So far, research shows that it speeds healing after injury or surgery for certain conditions, like torn tendons. In addition to helping injured tissue heal, some studies show PRP injections curb pain and boost mobility for people with rotator cuff injuries.

Why is PRP not recommended? ›

While PRP is considered safe for most people, it's not recommended for anyone who has one of the following medical conditions: Hepatitis C. HIV or AIDS. Any type of blood cancer.

Does PRP stimulate stem cells? ›

Platelet Rich Plasma has the ability to both increase stem cells and guide them in healing. In initial findings, PRP assisted stem cells in “figuring out” what they needed to be – whether a cartilage cell, or a bone cell, or a collagen cell for ligaments and tendons.

How do you know if PRP is working? ›

Depending on your condition, you should see results between 2-6 weeks after receiving a PRP injection. Mild injuries or chronic pain cases typically see results within the first two weeks, while more serious injuries won't be able to appreciate the healing until around a month has passed.

Does PRP activate stem cells? ›

The platelets are re-injected about 5 days later to keep the stem cells activated and trigger the body's healing response and cell regeneration. PRP is beneficial for jumpstarting the body's existing mechanism to heal a damaged tissue that may be stuck.

Which algorithm is best for decision tree? ›

The basic algorithm used in decision trees is known as the ID3 (by Quinlan) algorithm. The ID3 algorithm builds decision trees using a top-down, greedy approach.

What is rpart2 vs rpart? ›

The “rpart” method consists of tuning the model based on Complexity parameter (cp) or Tree pruning, while “rpart2” method aims to optimize the maximum tree depth parameter (or setting the constraint on tree size).

Which algorithm is better decision tree or random forest? ›

Which algorithm is better: decision tree or random forest? A. Random forest is a strong modeling technique and much more robust than a decision tree. Many Decision trees are aggregated to limit overfitting as well as errors due to bias and achieve the final result.

Is cross-validation more reliable than AIC? ›

As you stated, if the sample size is not enormous, AIC may be more reliable than cross-validation and is certainly faster. But AIC relies heavily on honesty; you have to be honest in specifying the number of degrees of freedom used in its computation.

Can PCA be used for cross-validation? ›

Actually, you very much can apply cross-validation to PCA. With PCA you need to guess how many dimensions (PCs) to retain.

Does cross-validation always prevent overfitting? ›

Cross-validation is a robust measure to prevent overfitting. The complete dataset is split into parts. In standard K-fold cross-validation, we need to partition the data into k folds. Then, we iteratively train the algorithm on k-1 folds while using the remaining holdout fold as the test set.

How do you document a decision tree? ›

How to make a decision tree using the shape library in MS Word
  1. In your Word document, go to Insert > Illustrations > Shapes. A drop-down menu will appear.
  2. Use the shape library to add shapes and lines to build your decision tree.
  3. Add text with a text box. Go to Insert > Text > Text box. ...
  4. Save your document.

What is the best way to make a decision tree? ›

How to Create a Decision Tree
  1. Define your main idea or question. The first step is identifying your root node. ...
  2. Add potential decisions and outcomes. Next, expand your tree by adding potential decisions. ...
  3. Expand until you hit end points. Remember to flesh out each decision in your tree. ...
  4. Calculate risk and reward.
Aug 31, 2022

What are the 4 quadrants RStudio? ›

RStudio has four main panes each in a quadrant of your screen: Source Editor, Console, Workspace Browser (and History), and Plots (and Files, Packages, Help).

What are the five different data structures in R? ›

R's basic data types are character, numeric, integer, complex, and logical. R's basic data structures include the vector, list, matrix, data frame, and factors.

How do I visualize multiple plots in R? ›

We can put multiple graphs in a single plot by setting some graphical parameters with the help of par() function. R programming has a lot of graphical parameters which control the way our graphs are displayed. The par() function helps us in setting or inquiring about these parameters.

How accurate is rpart prediction? ›

Predictions on test set

100% accuracy on test set. 95% confidence interval (0.9977, 1) for the model accuracy.

How do you know which predictor variable is most important? ›

A general rule is to view the predictor variable with the largest standardized regression coefficient as the most important variable; the predictor variable with the next largest standardized regression coefficient as the next important variable, and so on.

How do you know which variable is most important predictor? ›

Generally variable with highest correlation is a good predictor. You can also compare coefficients to select the best predictor (Make sure you have normalized the data before you perform regression and you take absolute value of coefficients) You can also look change in R-squared value.

Which function is used to plot decision tree in R? ›

We will use the ctree() function to create the decision tree and see its graph.

How do you implement a decision tree on a dataset? ›

For each attribute in the dataset, the Decision-Tree algorithm forms a node. The most important attribute is placed at the root node. For evaluating the task in hand, we start at the root node and we work our way down the tree by following the corresponding node that meets our condition or decision.

Is it mandatory to override default method? ›

If you have default method in an interface, it is not mandatory to override (provide body) it in the classes that are already implementing this interface. In short, you can access the default methods of an interface using the objects of the implementing classes.

Can we override default method of functional interface? ›

One of the major reason for introducing default methods in interfaces is to enhance the Collections API in Java 8 to support lambda expressions. If any class in the hierarchy has a method with same signature, then default methods become irrelevant. A default method cannot override a method from java.

What is the difference between default and static methods? ›

Default methods enable you to add new functionality to the interfaces of your libraries and ensure binary compatibility with code written for older versions of those interfaces. A static method is a method that is associated with the class in which it is defined rather than with any object.

What are the 4 types of functional interfaces? ›

We will also discuss four types of functional interfaces i.e. Consumer, Predicate, Function (UnaryOPerator and BinaryOperator), and Supplier.

How do I identify a functional interface? ›

An Interface that contains exactly one abstract method is known as functional interface. It can have any number of default, static methods but can contain only one abstract method. It can also declare methods of object class. Functional Interface is also known as Single Abstract Method Interfaces or SAM Interfaces.

What are the four types of functional interfaces in Java 8? ›

Functional Interfaces in Java 8
  • Consumer – BiConsumer.
  • Predicate-BiPredicate.
  • Function.
  • Unary Operator.
  • Binary Operator.
Feb 22, 2022

Are default methods inherited? ›

Default methods and abstract methods in interfaces are inherited like instance methods. However, when the supertypes of a class or interface provide multiple default methods with the same signature, the Java compiler follows inheritance rules to resolve the name conflict.

Are default methods always public? ›

Like regular interface methods, default methods are implicitly public; there's no need to specify the public modifier.

Can functional interface have only default methods? ›

A functional interface can contain default and static methods which do have an implementation, in addition to the single unimplemented method. The above interface still counts as a functional interface in Java, since it only contains a single non-implemented method.

What is PRP in coding? ›


When should I do PRP? ›

PRP therapy process

Most PRP therapy requires three treatments 4–6 weeks apart. Maintenance treatments are required every 4–6 months.

What is PRP in radiology? ›

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) is where you have a high concentration of platelets and therefore growth factors, being up to 5 to 10 times greater than in normal blood. PRP is then injected by a Radiologist into the requested body region under ultrasound guidance.

How does PRP work Pubmed? ›

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous blood product, obtained after blood centrifugation. PRP is rich in growth factors which promote tissue-healing, alter angiogenesis, and possess versatile immunomodulatory effects, in the relative absence of any significant demonstrable adverse effects.

What is PRP example? ›

Prerequisite Program (PRP) Defined by ISO as the basic conditions and activities necessary to maintain a hygienic environment throughout the food chain which are suitable for the production, handling and provision of safe end products and safe food for human consumption.

What is PRP manual? ›

The Environmental Protection Agency's "PRP Search Manual" provides guidance on how to search for potentially responsible parties (PRPs) that may be liable for cleanup at a Superfund site.

What does PRP stand for in manufacturing? ›

PRP means Pre Requisite Programmes – (Also includes GMP – Good Manufacturing Practices). PRP is an umbrella term to describe all activities, other than specific HACCP plans, that affect food hygiene, quality and safety. (These activities include pest control and sanitation).

What is the disadvantage of PRP? ›

PRP uses your own blood, so experts say it is likely to be safe. However, an injection into the knee joint can entail some risks, including: local infection. pain at the site of injection.

How long does PRP stay active? ›

PRP begins working immediately and continues working for up to two months. Patients typically report that their symptoms continue to fade in the months that follow. The benefits last for at least a year, although minor injuries may be cured entirely after one or two treatments.

Who is not a good candidate for PRP? ›

People who may not benefit from PRP include adults with:
  • A personal history of active cancer.
  • Blood-related conditions, such as severe anemia or leukemia.
  • An infection in the treatment area.
  • Active smoker.
May 11, 2021

What is the role of platelet rich plasma in inducing musculoskeletal tissue healing? ›

Blood components such as platelets migrate to the injury site and play an important role in tissue repair. Platelets contain various growth factors and cytokines that initiate and promote healing by stimulating cell migration, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and matrix synthesis.

How do platelets work in PRP? ›

Besides containing clotting factors, the platelets release growth factors and proteins that help start the healing process. PRP contains a concentrated amount of platelets that release potent quantities of these growth factors and proteins to stimulate a robust healing response.

What is the difference between PRP and PRF? ›

With PRP, your blood is spun in a centrifuge at high speed, completely separating the plasma layer. With PRF your blood is spun at a lower speed so that some of the white blood cells, stem cells, and fibrin remain in the platelet layer.

Why is PRP controversial? ›

Controversies surrounding the procedure centre on conflicting accounts of its efficacy, a lack of standardization when it comes to PRP production and injection protocols and the potential for misleading the general public with celebrity endorsements of a procedure that may implicitly overstate the promise that the ...

Has PRP been proven to work? ›

Platelet-rich plasma has been found to significantly enhance the healing process, and using a PRP injection for shoulder pain caused by rotator cuff tears, for Achilles tendon ruptures and for other soft-tissue injuries is becoming more common.

Does PRP regrow tissue? ›

PRP also has the ability to generate new tissue growth. This can be especially useful for degenerative problems, cartilage injuries, surgical heart procedures, muscle strains, tendon damage, fascia irritation, and more.


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